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High School Chemistry - What You Need to Know

< Chemistry home page

1. What is Chemistry? Show More >

As you embark on your study of chemistry, it is helpful to understand what chemistry is and how it is important.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
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• Definition of Chemistry Show More >

Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes it undergoes.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

2. Matter: What makes up the world around you? Show More >

Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. In other words, matter is everything around you - including you! Chemists are especially interested in atoms, molecules and their properties.

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• Properties of Matter Show More >

Properties of matter can be broken into two groups: physical properties and chemical properties.

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• Physical Properties Show More >

You should be familiar with the definition of physical properties and be able to identify properties as physical or chemical. Examples of physical properties include malleability, ductility, hardness, color, conductivity, melting point, and boiling point.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Chemical Properties Show More >

You should be familiar with the definition of chemical properties and be able to identify properties as physical or chemical. Examples of chemical properties include the ability to react with water, the ability to burn, the ability to rust, and the tendency not to react with water.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Changes matter can undergo Show More >

Matter can undergo physical changes, in which the substance changes its state or shape, or chemical, in which the substance is changed into another substance.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
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EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Physical Changes Show More >

You should be familiar with the definition of physical changes and be able to identify changes in matter as physical or chemical. Examples of physical changes include breaking, melting, boiling, and bending.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Chemical Changes Show More >

You should be familiar with the definition of chemical changes and be able to identify changes of matter as physical or chemical. Example of chemical changes include burning and rusting.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Fundamental types of matter Show More >

Matter can be broken down into atoms of different elements. When two or more atoms or different elements are chemically combined, the result is a compound. A sample containing only one type of element or molecule is called a pure substance, while a mixture contains two or more substances.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Separating mixtures using physical properties Show More >

Mixtures can be separated using the physical properties of their components. For example, distillation uses differences in boiling points to separate the components of a mixture, and filtration is used to separate solid from liquid components. Often, a combination of techniques need to be used to separate the components of a mixture, so it important to think through the separation process before you start.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

3. Measurement in Chemistry Show More >

Experimentation is an essential part of chemistry, and careful measurements are necessary to obtain useful information.

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• Accuracy and Precision Show More >

You should understand the distinction between accuracy and precision and how each can arise during experiments.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Significant figures in Measurements and Calculations Show More >

Keeping track of significant figures in calculations ensures that precision is not lost (or artificially gained) during a calculation.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Laboratory Safety Show More >

You should understand and be able to describe common safety procedures in the laboratory.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Common Units Show More >

You should be familiar with SI units and non-SI units used in chemistry, as well as common prefixes such milli-, centi-, and kilo-.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
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• Volume (L) Show More >

The liter is the accepted unit of volume in chemistry. For small volumes, milliliters and (occasionally) cubic centimeters are used.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Mole Show More >

Atoms and molecules are so small that chemists don’t usually discuss small numbers of them. The unit chemists use to discuss numbers of atoms or molecules is the mole. If a scientist says they have a mole of water molecules, that means they have 6.02x10^23 water molecules

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Temperature (oC, K) Show More >

The Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales are most commonly used in chemistry. Thermometers tend to be calibrated in Celsius, but many calculations are done in Kelvin, so it is also important that you know how to convert between the two.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Length (m, Angstrom) Show More >

When length is used, it is usually measured in meters (or related units such as centimeters or millimeters). Nanometers and Angstroms (10^-10 m) are both used for molecular-scale distances, such as bind lengths.

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• Time (s) Show More >

Time is typically measured in seconds, which is the SI unit for time.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Density (g/mL) Show More >

Density is the mass of a substance per unit volume. The most common unit of density is g/mL, but other related units can also be used, such as kg/L or g/cm^3.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Dimensional Analysis Show More >

Dimensional analysis is a technique for converting one unit into another. For example, dimensional analysis can be used to covert minutes to seconds.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

4. Atoms and Atomic Theory Show More >

Atoms are the building blocks of matter. In order to understand matter, it is important to first understand atoms.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
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• History of Atomic Theory Show More >

Many scientists contributed to our understanding of the atom, building on and revising the existing models. Studying the history not only lets us understand how each part of the model came about, but also serves as an example of the scientific method in action.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies
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EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Democritus' Theory of Atoms ("atomos") Show More >

Matter is made up of "atomos" - indivisible particles.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level

• Dalton's Atomic Theory Show More >

You should be familiar with Dalton's atomic theory of matter and understand its significance in the history of atomic theory.

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• Law of Constant Composition Show More >

You should understand the law of constant composition (sometimes called the law of definite proportions) and its significance in the history of atomic theory.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Law of Multiple Proportions Show More >

You should understand the law of multiple proportions and its significance in the history of atomic theory.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Thomson's Cathode Ray Tube Show More >

Thomson's experiment led him to discover the electron as well as the charge-to-mass ratio of the electron. You should have a general understanding of his experiment and how it led to the discovery of the electron. You should also understand the significance of these discoveries in the history of atomic theory.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Plum Pudding Model Show More >

Thomson's plum-pudding model stated that atoms are a positively charged sphere with negative charges distributed throughout like plums in a plum pudding. You should understand what led Thomson to this conclusion and its significance in the history of atomic theory.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level

• Millikan's Oil-drop Experiment Show More >

Millikan determined the charge of an electron and used it to calculate the mass of an electron. You should have a general understanding of his experiment and the significance of his contributions to the history of atomic theory.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment Show More >

Rutherford's experiment led him to determine that atoms are mostly empty space and have a dense, positively charged nucleus.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Chadwick - Discovery of Neutrons Show More >

Chadwick discovered the existence of neutrons.

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• Modern view of the atom Show More >

Two models of the atom are used today. The quantum mechanical model is currently believed to be the correct model. However, that model is more difficult to visualize (and draw) so the Bohr model that precedes it is still used in some situations.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
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• Bohr's Model of the Atom Show More >

Bohr proposed that electrons circle the nucleus in defined orbits at specific distances from the nucleus. You should understand the significance of this model in the history of atomic theory, as well as its continued relevance today.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Wave Nature of Electrons Show More >

You should understand that electrons have properties of both particles and waves, as well as their significance in explaining the behavior of electrons.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Quantum Mechanical Model (orbitals) Show More >

The quantum mechanical model of the atom proposes that electrons are not in orbits, but rather in orbitals, which are volumes in which there is a high probability of finding an electron. Be sure you understand the difference between an orbit and an orbital.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Atomic Structure Show More >

This unit covers atomic symbols and masses, using the periodic table to determine the number of protons in an atom, electron configurations, and core and valence electrons, as well as some measurement techniques that rely on atomic structure.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
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• 3 subatomic particles essential to understanding chemistry Show More >

The three subatomic particles are used in chemistry: protons, neutrons, and electrons. You should know the names, charges, and relative masses (in atomic mass units or Daltons) of each.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Atomic Numbers, Symbols, Mass Numbers, and Isotopes Show More >

You should understand the relationship between the number of protons in an atom and the atomic number of the element, and also be able to calculate the mass number of the atom. You should then be able to use those to write the atomic symbol, include the atomic number, element symbol, mass number, and charge, if applicable. You should also understand how isotopes of the same element are the same and how they differ.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Atomic Masses (calculation and measurement) Show More >

You should be able to calculate atomic masses and understand how mass spectrometry can be used to identify isotopes with different masses.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Periodic Table of Elements Show More >

You should be able to use the periodic table to determine the number of protons, chemical symbol, and/or atomic number of an element.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Average Atomic Mass Show More >

You should be able to calculate the average atomic mass of an element, given the atomic mass and relative abundance of each of the isotopes.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Quantum Numbers Show More >

The quantum numbers you should know are the energy level (also called the principle quantum number), the orbital (s,p,d, f), and spin. This is what you will need to assign electron configurations for elements.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Quantum Numbers - full assignment Show More >

Full assignment of quantum numbers involves assignment of numbers for the principle quantum number, orbital quantum number, magnetic quantum number, and spin quantum number.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level

• Electron Configuration Show More >

You should know the rules for writing electron configurations, including the Aufbau Principle, the Pauli Exclusion Principle, and Hund's Rule, and be able to write the electron configuration of any element that obeys the rules. You should also be aware of the elements that do not follow the rules, and why they are exceptions. (You do not need to memorize the electron configurations of the exceptions.) It is recommended that you use the periodic table to help write the electron configurations, rather than the pyramid diagram or memorization.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Core and Valence Electrons Show More >

You should know the definitions of core and valence electrons, and be able to use the electron configuration and the placement of the element of the periodic table to determine the number of core and valence electrons.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Photoelectron Spectroscopy as evidence for Shell Structure of Atom Show More >

Photoelectron spectroscopy provides a spectral "fingerprint" that arises from different electron configurations. You should understand how PES provides evidence for electrons having quantized energy levels.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Absorption / Emission Spectroscopy Show More >

You should understand how the wavelengths of light emitted from an atom are related to the quantization of energy levels, and be able to use your knowledge of energy levels to explain why different elements have different spectral "fingerprints" and burn with different colored flames. For the more advanced levels, you should also know the Beer-Lambert law and be able to use it to determine the concentration of a solution. Basic: w/out B-L law only. Advanced: w/ B-L law.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Mass Spectrometry Show More >

You should understand how mass spectrometry works and its role in determining the existence and relative abundance of different isotopes.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

5. Periodic Properties and the Periodic Table Show More >

The periodic table is the most useful tool in chemistry. The placement of an element on the table can tell us a great deal about its properties and helps us predict its behavior.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
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EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Periodic Table Show More >

The periodic table is one of the most useful tools in chemistry. There is a lot of information contained in the periodic table and you should learn what this information is and how to use it.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
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• General Layout (metals, nonmetals, metalloids, groups, periods) Show More >

The periodic table is organized by grouping elements with similar characteristics together. You should be able to identify an element as a metal, nonmetal, or metalloid based on its location on the periodic table. Elements with similar properties tend to be in the same columns (groups). For example, Sodium and Potassium have similar properties, as do Neon and Argon. You should know the difference between groups and periods, as well as the names of the groups, such as alkali metals and halogens.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Periodic Properties Show More >

The periodic table is arranged in such a way that a number of properties display trends that are periodic if the trends are plotted as a function of atomic number. You should understand what it means for a property to be periodic, and be able to use the periodic table to predict relative properties of elements.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
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EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Atoms arranged by Atomic Number, Mass, and similar properties/characteristics Show More >

The periodic table arranges the elements in order of atomic number, as well as grouping them by similar characteristics. Using the periodic table, you should be able to identify elements with similar properties.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Melting Points Show More >

You should be able to use your knowledge of atomic structure to explain why melting point is a periodic trend. Given two or three elements, you should be able to predict which will have the highest melting point and which will have the lowest melting point.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Atomic Radius Show More >

You should be able to use your knowledge of atomic structure to explain why atomic radius is a periodic trend. Given two or three elements, you should be able to predict which will have the largest radius and which will have the smallest radius.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Valence Electrons and Electron Configuration Show More >

You should be able to determine the electron configuration and the number of valence electrons based on its position on the periodic table. For example, elements in the first column have 1 valence electron, while elements in the fifth column have 5 valence electrons (disregarding the transition metals).

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Ion Charge Show More >

You should be able to predict the charge an element will take based on its position on the periodic table (and therefore its number of valence electrons).

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Ion Size Show More >

You should be able to use your knowledge of atomic structure to explain why ionic radius is a periodic trend. Given two or three ions, you should be able to predict which will have the largest and which will have the smallest radius.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Ionization Energy (1st) Show More >

You should be able to use your knowledge of atomic structure to explain why ionization energy is a periodic trend. Given two or three ions, you should be able to predict which will have the largest and which will have the smallest ionization energy. (Note that we will be only dealing with the first ionization energy here.)

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Electron Affinity Show More >

You should be able to use your knowledge of atomic structure to explain why electron affinity is a periodic trend. Given two or three elements, you should be able to predict which will have the largest and which will have the smallest electron affinity.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level

• Electronegativity Show More >

You should be able to use your knowledge of atomic structure to explain why electronegativity is a periodic trend. Given two or three elements, you should be able to predict which will have the largest and which will have the smallest electronegativity.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Explain trends as result of Shielding, Radius Show More >

You should be sure that you can explain the periodic trends in terms of atomic (or ionic) radius and shielding.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Properties of Oxides Show More >

Since elements with similar properties are grouped together, it follows that the oxides of element in the same group would also have similar properties. You should know the properties of alkali and alkaline earth metal oxides and nonmetal oxides.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

6. Ions and Ionic Compounds Show More >

Ions are charged atoms or groups of atoms. Ions with opposite charges attract to in specific ratios to form neutral ionic compounds. Ionic compounds are often (but not always) composed of a metal and nonmetal ions, such as NaCl.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
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EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Predicting Ion Charge Show More >

You should be able to predict the charge an element will take based on its position on the periodic table (and therefore its number of valence electrons).

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Naming Monatomic Ions Show More >

You should be able to name monatomic ions based on the element name and the charge it has as an ion.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Naming Polyatomic Ions Show More >

You should know the names and formulas (including charges) of some of the common polyatomic ions. For example, ammonium, acetate, nitrate, hydroxide, sulfate, carbonate, and phosphate are all commonly used ions.

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• Naming Ionic Compounds Show More >

Given the formula of an ionic compound, you should be able to provide the correct name.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Writing Formulas Show More >

Given the name of an ionic compound or the ions that combine to make it, you should be able to determine the correct ratio of cations to anions to make a neutral compound and write the formula.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Formula Units and Formula Mass Show More >

You should know the definition of a formula unit and be able to calculate the formula mass of an ionic compound.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Ionic "Bonds" (electrostatic attractions) Show More >

You should know what forces hold ions together in ionic compounds and how that affects their properties

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Coulomb's Law Show More >

You should be able to use Coulomb's Law to predict the relative strengths of attractions between the ions in different ionic compounds.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Electrolytes / Conductivity Show More >

You should be able to define an electrolyte and explain why salt water conducts electricity.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• General (physical) Properties of Ionic Compounds Show More >

Since ionic compounds are all held together by electrostatic attractions, they have many similar properties. You should be able to explain why and how the ionic bond influences the properties of ionic compounds.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:
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• Lattice Structure Show More >

The ions in ionic compounds are arranged in regular three-dimensional lattices. There are many different types of arrangements (crystal structures), but it is not necessary to know all of them. You should be able to explain how the lattice structure influences the shape of the crystal and why it prevents us from referring to formula units as molecules.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• High Melting and Boiling Points (solid at room temp) Show More >

You should be able to explain why ionic compounds have very high melting and boiling points.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Brittle Show More >

You should be able to explain why ionic compounds are brittle and why they often shatter instead of having clean breaks.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Conductive as liquid or dissolved in water Show More >

You should be able to explain why ionic compounds conduct electricity as liquids or when dissolved in water, but not as solids.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

7. Molecular Compounds Show More >

Molecular compounds are nonmetal atoms connected by covalent bonds. Molecular compounds range from very small (two atoms) to enormous polymers and proteins. After you cover this section, see the section on Organic Chemistry for more information on the larger molecular compounds.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
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EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Covalent Bonds Show More >

You should understand the nature of a covalent bond and how it differs from an ionic bond.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Naming Molecular Compounds Show More >

You should be able to name binary molecular compounds.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Molecular Mass Show More >

You should be able to calculate molecular mass and understand the distinction between molecular mass and formula mass.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Lewis Structures Show More >

You should be able to draw Lewis structures for simple molecular compounds.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Isomers Show More >

You should know the definition of isomers, be able to recognize isomers when given Lewis structures, and draw isomers given a molecular formula.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Resonance Show More >

You should know the definition of resonance and be able to draw resonance structures. You should also understand why resonance structures tend to increase the stability of a molecule.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Using formal charge to determine likely structure Show More >

If you have a molecule with more than one possible Lewis structure, you should be able to calculate the formal charges for the atoms and use them to determine the most likely structure.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Molecular Shape (VSEPR Theory), Bond Angles Show More >

Using your knowledge of Lewis structures and VSEPR theory, you should be able to determine the electronic and molecular shape of small molecules and the shapes around different atoms in large molecules.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Bond Order Show More >

You should be able to determine bond orders and understand how they relate to bond energy.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Bond Length / Strength Show More >

You should understand the relationship between bond length and bond strength, and be able to predict the relative reactivity of single, double, and triple bonds.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Polarity (bond and molecule), Dipoles, Partial Charges Show More >

Using electronegativities, you should be able to determine the polarities of the different bonds in a molecule. You should then be able to use the bond polarities, together with your knowledge of molecular shape and structure, to determine the molecular polarity. If the molecule is polar, you should be able to determine the direction of the dipole and label the areas of partial charge on the molecule.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Hybridization Show More >

You should understand how hybrid orbitals form and why, and be able to determine the hybridization of atoms in a given molecule. AP: sp, sp2, sp3 (no d)

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Sigma, Pi Bonds Show More >

You should understand what sigma and pi bonds are, how and when they form, and their relationship to single, double, and triple bonds.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Delocalized Bonds Show More >

You should understand what it means to have delocalized bonds and how that affects stability.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Limitations of Lewis Diagrams Show More >

You should know that Lewis structures have limitations, especially for molecules with odd numbers of electrons

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Molecular Orbital Theory (advanced) Show More >

You should understand the significance of molecular orbital theory and the weaknesses in previous theories addressed by this theory. You should also be able to read and interpret molecular orbital diagrams. However, you do not need to draw them. AP: reading MO diagrams only, no drawing.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• General (physical) Properties of Molecular Compounds Show More >

Since molecular compounds are held together by covalent bonds, their properties are different from ionic compounds. Due to the huge range of molecular compounds, they have a correspondingly large range of properties. You should know the general trends for the physical properties of molecular compounds and how they differ from ionic compounds.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

8. Intermolecular Forces Show More >

Intermolecular forces are the interactions between molecules. The stronger the intermolecular forces, the more tightly the molecules stick to each other. They influence many properties of substances, such as melting and boiling points, viscosity, and whether or not a compound will dissolve in water. You should understand the relative strengths of the intermolecular forces and use it to predict relative properties such as boiling points or solubility in water.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Hydrogen Bonding Show More >

You should be able to determine whether or not hydrogen bonding will occur in a given system and be able to explain the strength of hydrogen bonds relative to the other intermolecular forces.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Dipole-dipole Forces Show More >

You should be able to determine whether or not dipole-dipole forces will occur in a given system and be able to explain the strength of dipole-dipole forces relative to the other intermolecular forces.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Ion-dipole Forces Show More >

You should be able to determine whether or not ion-dipole forces will occur in a given system and be able to explain the strength of ion-dipole forces relative to the other intermolecular forces.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Van der Waals/London Dispersion Forces Show More >

You should be able to determine whether or not dispersion forces will occur in a given system and be able to explain the strength of dispersion forces relative to the other intermolecular forces.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Polarizability Show More >

Using your knowledge of the molecular shape and structure, you should be able to determine the relative polarizaibilties of two different molecules and explain how that influences the strength of the intermolecular forces.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Effects on Properties Show More >

Using your knowledge of intermolecular forces and their relative strengths, you should be able to predict the relative properties of different molecules.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Melting Point, Boiling Point Show More >

You should understand how the strength of the intermolecular forces present affects the boiling point and melting point of a substance, and be able to predict relative melting and boiling points for different systems.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Viscosity Show More >

You should understand how the strength of the intermolecular forces present affects the viscosity of a substance, and be able to predict relative viscosity for different systems.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Surface Tension Show More >

You should understand how the strength of the intermolecular forces present affects the surface tension of a substance, and be able to predict relative surface tension strengths for different systems.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Vapor Pressure Show More >

You should understand how the strength of the intermolecular forces present affects the vapor pressure of a substance, and be able to predict relative vapor pressures for different systems.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Capillary Action Show More >

You should understand how the strength of the intermolecular forces present affects the capillary action of a substance and be able to predict relative capillary actions for different systems.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Solubility in different substances Show More >

You should understand how the strength of the intermolecular forces present affects the solubility of one compound in another, and be able to predict relative solubilties of different molecules in a given solvent.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Volume of Mixing Show More >

The volume of a solution is not always equal to the sum of the volumes mixed together. You should be able to use intermolecular forces to explain why and when this occurs.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Hardness Show More >

You should understand how the strength of the intermolecular forces present affects the hardness of a solid, and be able to predict the relative hardness of different solids.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

9. Phase Changes Show More >

Chemists work with matter in three states, or phases: solid, liquid, and gas. Phase transitions are the changes of matter from one phase to another. For example, the change from solid to liquid is referred to as melting. Phase transitions are always accompanied by energy changes. An important factor in the size of the energy change is how tightly the molecules stick to each other (intermolecular forces).

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• States of Matter Show More >

You should be familiar with the three states of matter used in most areas of chemistry (solids, liquids, and gases). You should also know the characteristics of each state.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Solids Show More >

You should know that solids keep their own shape and volume, and particle motion is limited to vibration rather than translation. Since the molecules are very close together, they can have strong interparticle interactions. Solids can be classified as amorphous or crystalline, and crystalline solids have a variety of lattice structures. IB: learn types of crystal structures also.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Liquids Show More >

You should know that liquids flow to take on the shape of their container. Particles are able to move throughout the volume of the liquid, but collisions with other molecules are common. Since the molecules are very close together, they can have strong interparticle interactions.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Gases Show More >

You should know that gases take on the shape and volume of their container, and particle motion is limited only to the volume of the container. Since the particles are far apart, they have few interparticle interactions.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Interpreting Phase Diagrams Show More >

You should be able to read a phase diagram to determine the temperature of a phase transition at a given pressure or to determine the state of a substance at a given pressure and temperature. More advanced students should be able to sketch phase diagrams given appropriate data.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level

• Predict Energy Changes associated with Phase Changes (qualitative) Show More >

You should be able to predict whether a given phase change needs an input of energy or will give off energy.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

10. The Mole Show More >

Atoms are extremely small, so chemists work with many atoms or molecules at once. The mole is similar in concept to a dozen, but much bigger. Rather than 12 atoms, a mole is 6.02x10^23 atoms. Moles are used to convert between mass, volume of a gas, and number of particles in a sample.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Molar Mass Show More >

You should be able to calculate the molar mass of a given compound.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Convert between Moles, Mass, Volume, and Number of Particles Show More >

You should be able to use dimensional analysis to convert between moles, mass, volume, and number of particles.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Percent Composition from Formula or Mass Show More >

If you are given a formula or the masses of the elements in a sample, you should be able to calculate the percent composition of the substance.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Empirical and Molecular Formulas from Mass and/or Percent Composition Show More >

If you are given the masses of the elements in a compound or the % composition, you should be able to calculate the empirical formula of that compound. If you are also given the molar mass, you should then be able to calculate the molecular formula.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

11. Gas Laws Show More >

The molecules in a gas are very far apart, so they have limited interactions with each other. Therefore, their behavior differs from liquids and solids.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases Show More >

You should know the Kinetic Molecular Theory of gases and understand its significance to gaseous behavior.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Boyle's Law Show More >

You should know how Boyle's law relates pressure and volume and be able to use it to predict how a change in one will cause the other to change.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Interpreting Graphical Data Show More >

If provided with a graph of data, you should be able to use molecular interactions and intermolecular forces to explain deviations from ideal behavior.

AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Charles' Law Show More >

You should know how Charles' law relates temperature and volume and be able to use it to predict how a change in one will cause the other to change.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Estimate Absolute Zero from Experimental Data Show More >

You should be able to graph experimental temperature and volume data and use it to estimate the theoretical volume of the gas at absolute zero. You should also be able to address any deviations from ideal behavior in terms of molecular interactions and intermolecular forces.

AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Gay-Lussac's Law (advanced) Show More >

You should know how Gay-Lussac's law relates temperature and pressure and be able to use it to predict how a change in one will cause the other to change.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Dalton's Law (advanced) Show More >

You should know Dalton's law of partial pressures and be able to use it to calculate the total pressure of a mixture of gases, given the partial pressures of the individual gases. You should also be able to calculate the partial pressure of one of the gases, given the pressures of the other gases and the total pressure.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Avogadro's Law (advanced) Show More >

You should know how Avogadro's law relates volume and the number of moles of a gas and be able to use it to predict how a change in one will cause the other to change.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Ideal Gas Behavior Show More >

You should understand how the gas laws can be combined into the Ideal Gas Equation, and be able to apply it to gaseous systems.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Correction to Ideal Gas Equation Show More >

You should understand why the behavior of real gases differs from that predicted by the ideal gas equation. Advanced students should know the correction to the ideal gas equation and the significance of each term.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Diffusion Show More >

You should know the definition of diffusion and be able to describe how it occurs.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Effusion Show More >

You should know the definition of effusion and be able to differentiate effusion from diffusion. You should also be able to predict relative rates of effusion based on molar mass. If a numerical value for the rate of effusion is needed, you should be able to use Graham's law to calculate rates of effusion.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level

12. Solutions Show More >

Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances. While most people think of solids dissolved in liquids when they think of solutions, solutions can be mixtures of any phases as long as the result is homogeneous.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Types of Solutions Show More >

While we tend to think of solutions as solids dissolved in liquids, solutions are actually homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances. You should be able to identify solutions as well as identify the solute(s) and the solvent.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Concentration Show More >

You should understand that the concentration of a solution refers to the amount of solute dissolved in a solution. Solutions with higher concentrations are said to be more concentrated, while solutions with lower concentrations are said to be more dilute.

AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Molarity Show More >

Molarity is the moles of solute per liter of solution. You should be able to use this relationship to calculate the molarity, the number of moles of solute, or the volume of solution, depending on the situation.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Molality Show More >

Molality is the moles of solute per kilogram of solvent. You should be able to use this relationship to calculate the molality, the number of moles of solute, or the mass of solvent, depending on the situation.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level

• Mass Percent Show More >

You should be able to determine the mass percent of any component of a solution.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level

• Parts Per Million (ppm), Parts Per Billion (ppb) Show More >

You should be able to determine the concentration of any component of a solution in parts per million and parts per billion.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level

• Dilutions Show More >

You should understand what it means to dilute something, and be able perform dilution calculations. For example, you should be able to determine how much of a solution of a given concentration you would need to make a given volume of solution with a lower concentration.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Making Solutions Show More >

You should be able to make a solution and then perform a dilution in a lab using the appropriate volumetric glassware. You should also be able to write a procedure describing how to accomplish both tasks.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Colligative Properties Show More >

You should know the definition of a colligative property and understand what makes some properties colligative properties. You should also be aware of the constraints on the solute (dilute, nonvolatile) and be able to predict how solutions with higher concentrations would deviate from ideal behavior.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Freezing Point Depression / Boiling Point Elevation Show More >

You should be able to calculate the boiling point or freezing point of a solution and use intermolecular forces to explain why the boiling point of a liquid increase and freezing point decreases when a solute is added. When working with an ionic solute, be sure you use the molality of ions (not the molality of the compound) in the calculation.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level

• Vapor Pressure Reduction (advanced) Show More >

You should be able to explain why the vapor pressure of a liquid decreases when a solute is added, and calculate the new vapor pressure of the solvent.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level

• Osmotic Pressure (advanced) Show More >

You should be able to explain why osmotic pressure increases when a solute is added and calculate the osmotic pressure of a solution.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level

• Colloids Show More >

You should be able to define a colloid, including information on particle size, and give some examples. You should also be able to give some properties of colloids, such as how they interact with light.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

13. Chemical Reactions Show More >

Chemical reactions involve transforming substances into other substances by breaking and/or forming chemical bonds.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Write Chemical Equation from Words Show More >

If a chemical reaction is described in words, you should be able to write the chemical equation.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Balance Chemical Equations Show More >

Given the reactants and products, you should be able to adjust the coefficients of each substance so each element has the same number on both sides of the reaction (matter is conserved).

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Combustion Reactions Show More >

You should be able to identify combustion reactions from a list of reactions. You should also be able to write the combustion reaction for a given hydrocarbon and balance it.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Synthesis Reactions Show More >

Given a list of reactions, you should be able to identify synthesis (combination) reactions. If provided with the reactants, you should be able to predict the products of simple synthesis reactions and write the balanced equations.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Decomposition Show More >

Given a list of reactions, you should be able to identify decomposition reactions. If provided with the reactant, you should be able to predict the products of decomposition reactions and write the balanced equations.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Oxidation-Reduction Show More >

Given a list of reactions, you should be able to identify oxidation-reduction reactions. If provided with the reactants, you should be able to predict the products of redox reactions and write the balanced equations.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Assign Oxidation Numbers Show More >

You should be able to assign oxidation numbers to elements in a reaction.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Determine Oxidized and Reduced Molecules Show More >

Using oxidation numbers, you should be able to identify which elements are oxidized and reduced in a reaction.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Determine Oxidizing Agent and Reducing Agent Show More >

Using oxidation numbers, you should be able to identify the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent in a reaction.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Write balanced complete ionic and net ionic equations Show More >

You should be familiar with complete ionic and net ionic equations and be able to write the balanced molecular, complete ionic, and net ionic equations for simple redox reactions (including states).

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Use activity series to predict products Show More >

You should be able to use the activity series of metals and the halogen activity series to predict whether or not a reaction occurs. If it does, you should be able to predict the products.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Balance using Half Reactions Show More >

You should be able to balance complex redox reactions using the half reaction method.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Balance using Oxidation Numbers Show More >

You should be able to balance complex redox reactions using the oxidation number method.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level

• Precipitation Reactions Show More >

Given a list of reactions, you should be able to identify precipitation reactions. If provided with the reactants, you should be able to predict the products of precipitation reactions and write the balanced equations.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Use the solubility table to determine presence of precipitate or qualitative understanding of ionic bond strength and its effect on solubility Show More >

You should be able to use a solubility table to predict the states of the predicted products and whether a visible reaction occurs. Alternatively, you could also use an understanding of the relationship between the charges of the ions in an ionic compound to predict the likely solubility.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Write balanced Molecular, complete Ionic, and Net Ionic equations Show More >

Once you have predicted that a reaction occurs and the states of the reactants and products, you should be able to write the balanced molecular, complete ionic, and net ionic equations (including states).

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Neutralization Reactions Show More >

Given a list of reactions, you should be able to identify neutralization reactions. If provided with the reactants, you should be able to predict the products of neutralization reactions and write the balanced molecular, complete ionic, and net ionic equations (including states).

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Predict states of reactants and products Show More >

Using the periodic table, activity series, and solubility table, you should be able to predict the states of most reactants and products in chemical reactions.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

14. Stoichiometry: Chemical Calculations Show More >

Balanced chemical equations provide the ratios in which substances react. Stoichiometry involves using these ratios to determine the amount of a product that can be formed if the initial amounts of the reactants are known, or determine the quantity of reactants needed to make a certain amount of a product.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Convert from moles, mass, volume, or number of atoms/molecules of one substance to moles, mass, volume, or numbers of another substance using a balanced chemical equation Show More >

You should be able to use dimensional analysis and a balanced chemical equation to convert moles, mass, volume or numbers of a substance to moles, mass, volume, or numbers of another substance.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Limiting Reactants Show More >

You should be able to determine the limiting reactant and theoretical yield of a given reaction, given the initial amounts of the reactants.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Percent Yield Show More >

If you are provided with the actual yield for a reaction, you should be able to determine the percent yield (after calculating the theoretical yield) and the amount of excess reactant left over.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Gravimetric Analysis Show More >

You should be able to explain how to use gravimetric analysis to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, including appropriate chemical equations and calculations.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Titrations Show More >

You should be able to explain how to use titrations to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, including appropriate chemical equations and calculations.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

15. Thermodynamics Show More >

Thermodynamics is the study of energy and energy changes. Most processes in chemistry involve changes in energy, from combustion to phase changes. Understanding these transformations helps us understand why some processes spontaneously and others do not.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Conservation of Energy Show More >

Energy is always conserved in chemical reactions, but can be converted from one form to another.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Relationship between Kinetic Energy and Temperature Show More >

You should understand the relationship between kinetic energy and temperature, including the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of kinetic energy as a function of temperature.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Energy Transfer between Molecules Show More >

You should understand that energy can be transferred between molecules through molecular collisions.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• First Law of Thermodynamics Show More >

You should know the First Law of Thermodynamics and understand its significance.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Enthalpy Changes Show More >

You should understand what enthalpy is and how to calculate it in a variety of processes.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Definition Show More >

You should understand the definition of enthalpy and how it is related to the energy gained or released during chemical processes.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Energy Diagrams Show More >

You should be able to read energy diagrams and draw them to illustrate the energy changes in a process.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Endothermic / Exothermic Show More >

You should be able to classify reactions as endothermic or exothermic, knowing the temperature change or the enthalpy change during the reaction.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Heat Capacity, Specific Heat Show More >

You should know the definitions of heat capacity and specific heat, and understand their significance in relating temperature changes during a process to the heat released or absorbed during the process.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• System vs. Surroundings Show More >

You should be able to define the system and the surroundings for a process.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• State Function vs. Path Function Show More >

You should be able to identify a function as a state function or a path function, and understand what that means for determining the value of that function.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level

• Calorimetry Show More >

You should be able to describe a constant pressure calorimetry experiment. Knowing the temperature change and the specific heat of the solvent, you should be able to calculate the enthalpy change and the molar enthalpy change of the process. You should also be able to calculate the heat of reaction for constant volume calorimetry (bomb calorimetry).

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Phase changes, heating and cooling curves Show More >

You should know the definitions of the molar enthalpies of vaporization and fusion. Using the molar enthalpies of vaporization and fusion and the specific heat of a substance in different states, you should be able to calculate the enthalpy change for converting a solid at a given temperature to a gas at another temperature or the reverse.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Enthalpy of Formation Show More >

You should know the definition of the enthalpy of formation and use enthalpies of formation to calculate the enthalpy change of a reaction.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Bond Enthalpies Show More >

You should be able to use bond enthalpies to calculate the enthalpy change for a reaction.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Hess' Law Show More >

You should understand the significance of Hess' Law in manipulating the enthalpies of related reactions and using them to calculate the enthalpy of the desired reaction.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Born-Haber Cycle Show More >

You should be able to describe the Born-Haber cycle for producing ammonia and calculate the enthalpy change for this reaction.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Second Law of Thermodynamics Show More >

You should know the Second Law of Thermodynamics and its significance.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Entropy Changes Show More >

You should understand what entropy is. In addition, you should be able to predict the sign of the entropy change for a given process and calculate the numerical value of the entropy change.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Definitions Show More >

There are two definitions of entropy - the thermodynamics definition, which defines entropy as a function of enthalpy, and the statistical mechanics definition, which defines entropy as a function of the number of different ways the molecules can be arranged. For the basic and AP levels, you should focus on the arrangements definition. IB students should also know the thermodynamic definition. AP: arrangements only (qualitative). IB: learn also thermo definition.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Entropy of Formation / Calculating Entropy changes in a reaction Show More >

You should be able to use the entropies of formation to calculate the entropy change for a reaction.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Third Law of Thermodynamics Show More >

You should know the Third Law of Thermodynamics and its significance.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level

• Gibbs' Free Energy Show More >

You should understand the concept of Gibbs' Free Energy. You should also be able to calculate changes in the free energy, and use the results to predict whether the process is spontaneous or not.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Definition Show More >

You should know the definition of Gibbs' Free Energy.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Calculating Free Energy Changes in a Reaction Show More >

You should be able to calculate the change in Gibbs' free energy in two way: using the free energies for formation and using the relationship between enthalpy, entropy, and free energy.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Predict spontaneity of reaction Show More >

Once you know the change in Gibbs' free energy for a process, you should be able to use that to predict whether the process is spontaneous in the forward direction, the reverse direction, or at equilibrium.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Driving nonspontaneous reactions Show More >

If the process is nonspontaneous, you should be able to propose ways to drive it. For example, you can calculate the temperature (if any) at which the reaction would become spontaneous. If that temperature is realistic, changing the temperature could be a way to drive the reaction.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

16. Chemical Kinetics Show More >

Reactions can occur at different rates, and there are a number of factors that can influence those rates.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Measuring Rates Show More >

You should be able to discuss experimental methods of determining rates of reactions, including measuring the absorbance and using the Beer-Lambert Law.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Factors Affecting Rates Show More >

You should understand the factors that can affect the rate of a reaction, including concentration of the reactants, temperature, surface area of the reactants, the presence of a catalyst, and other environmental factors.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Orders Show More >

You should be able to determine the reaction orders relative to each reactant and the overall order from the rate law.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Determine Rate Law from Experimental Data (advanced) Show More >

Given experimental data, you should be able to determine the rate law, including the value of the rate constant. You should also understand that the rate law can only be determined from experimental data, not from the stoichiometry of the reaction.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Rate Constants Show More >

You should be able to calculate the rate constant, including determining the appropriate units, and understand its temperature dependence.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Half-life Show More >

You should be able to calculate the half-life of a substance or use the half-life to determine how much will be left after a certain time.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Collision Theory Show More >

You should understand the collision theory, including orientation effects and activation energy.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Use Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of thermal energies to approximate fraction of collisions with enough energy to react Show More >

You should be able to use the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of thermal energies and the activation energy of the reaction to approximate the fraction of molecules that have sufficient energy for a reaction to occur.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Orientation Effects Show More >

You should understand how molecular orientation can influence the rate of a reaction, especially for complex molecules.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Activation energy and its effect on rate of reaction Show More >

You should understand the concept of activation energy and its affect on the rate of a reaction.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Energy Profile Show More >

You should be able to read an energy profile to determine the activation energy of the forward and reverse reactions, and whether each process is endothermic or exothermic. You should also be able to draw an energy profile and label the activation energy, change in energy for the reaction, and the initial and final states.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Transition State Show More >

You should understand what a transition state is, how it occurs, and where it occurs on an energy profile.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Arrhenius Equation Show More >

You should know the Arrhenius equation and be able to use it to calculate the rate constant or the activation energy for a reaction.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Reaction Mechanisms Show More >

You should understand the concepts behind reaction mechanisms and be able to propose possible mechanisms for simple reactions.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Rate-Limiting Step Show More >

You should know the definition of a rate-limiting step and understand what aspects of a step in the reaction mechanism may cause it to limit the rate of the reaction.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Reaction Intermediates Show More >

You should be able to identify reaction intermediates in a given reaction mechanism.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Role of catalyst in lowering the activation energy barrier and/or forming new intermediates Show More >

You should understand and be able to discuss the role of a catalyst in lowering the activation energy barrier and/or forming new intermediates for the reaction, and how these affect the rate of the reaction.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Types of Catalysis Show More >

You should be familiar with different types of catalysis, such as acid-base, surface, and enzyme catalysis, and their applications.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Thermodynamic vs. Kinetic Control Show More >

You should be familiar with the idea that a reaction can be controlled by kinetics or thermodynamics, and there can be a tension between the two. You should also be able to discuss how to tell that a reaction is controlled by kinetics.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

17. Chemical Equilibrium Show More >

When a reaction is in equilibrium, the rate of the reaction in the forward direction is the same as the rate in the reverse direction. While the system is not static, there is no net change in any of the reactants or products. Understanding chemical equilibria allows us to determine the relative quantities of reactants and products present at equilibrium.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Rates of forward and reverse processes are the same (no net change) Show More >

You should understand that a system at equilibrium is not a static system. Instead, it is a dynamic system in which the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal so there is no net change.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• LeChatelier's Principle: Predict effect of disturbance on system Show More >

You should be able to apply LeChatelier's Principle to predict how a disturbance to the system (such as an increase in the concentration of a reaction) will affect the position of equilibrium.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Write and calculate equilibrium constant expressions Show More >

Using the balanced equation, you should be able to write the equilibrium constant expression for that reaction. Given the equilibrium concentrations of the substances involved in the equilibrium, you should also be able to calculate the vale of the equilibrium constant.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Given K, calculate equilibrium concentration of reactions and products Show More >

Given a value for the equilibrium constant, you should be able to calculate the equilibrium concentrations of the reactants and products and determine which side is favored.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Calculate reaction quotient and use to determine if system is in equilibrium and if not, direction to equilibrium (advanced) Show More >

Given the concentrations of the reactants and products, you should be able to calculate the value of the reaction quotient and use the value to determine whether or not the system is at equilibrium. If not, you should also be able to predict which direction it will need to shift to achieve equilibrium.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Calculate solubility product and use to determine solubility of ionic compounds (advanced) Show More >

You should be able to calculate the value of the solubility product constant or use a given value to determine the solubility of an ionic compound.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Common Ion Effect - calculate equilibrium concentration after disturbance (advanced) Show More >

You should be able to use your understanding of the common ion effect to predict the result of adding a common ion to an equilibrium system. You should also be able to calculate the new equilibrium concentrations and use your prediction as a check.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Relationship between K and Gibbs Free Energy Show More >

You should know the relationship between the equilibrium constant and Gibbs' free energy and be able to apply it.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

18. Acids, Bases, and Acid-based Equilibria Show More >

Acids and bases are common in chemistry and in daily life, from lemon juice and vinegar to baking soda. The pH scale is used to describe the acidity or basicity of the solution. Strong acids and bases react completely with water to form ions, while weak acids and bases do not react completely and exist in equilibrium with the resulting ions.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Definitions of Acids, Bases Show More >

In addition to the specific definitions of acids and bases, you should also have a conceptual understanding of the properties of acids and bases.

AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Arrhenius Show More >

You should know the Arrhenius definition of acids and bases and be able to identify them.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level

• Bronsted-Lowry Show More >

You should know the Bronsted-Lowry definition of acids and bases and be able to identify them.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Lewis Show More >

You should know the Lewis definition of acids and bases and be able to identify them.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Naming Acids Show More >

You should be able to name acids on common ions.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Neutralization Reactions Show More >

You should be able to write, predict products, and balance neutralization reactions.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• pH Show More >

You should know the definition of pH and be able to use it in calculations.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Definition Show More >

You should be able to define pH, both in words and using an equation.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Calculating pH from concentration of strong acid or base, and reverse Show More >

You should be able to calculate the pH of a strong acid or base from its concentration, and use the pH to calculate the concentration of the solution.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Weak vs. Strong Acids and Bases Show More >

You should know the differences in behavior between weak and strong acids, and you should be able to identify common acids as weak or strong.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Amphoterism Show More >

You should know the definition of amphoteric, and be able to write equilibria showing the amphoteric nature of water.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Conjugate Acid / Base Pairs Show More >

You should know the definitions of conjugate acids and bases and be able to apply that to identify conjugate acid-base pairs in a neutralization reaction.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• pOH, pKw Show More >

You should know the definitions of pOH and pKw, and be able to use them appropriately in calculations.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Calculate pH of weak acid or base, given initial concentration Show More >

You should be able to use your knowledge of equilibria to calculate the pH of a weak acid or base, given the initial concentration of the solution.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• pKa, pKb Show More >

You should know the definitions of pKa and pKb, and be able to use them appropriately in calculations.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Titrations Show More >

You should understand how to use a titration to determine the concentration of a solution, and be able to describe how you would perform it, including what equipment you would use.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Equivalence Point vs. Endpoint Show More >

You should be able to define equivalence and endpoint and be able to describe the relationship between the two.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Strong Acid-Strong base Show More >

You should be able to design a strong acid-strong base titration and use the results to calculate the concentration of the unknown solution.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Weak Acid-Strong Base Show More >

You should be able to determine the concentration of a weak acid by titrating it with a strong base and performing the relevant calculations.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Weak Base-Strong Acid Show More >

You should be able to determine the concentration of a weak base by titrating it with a strong acid and performing the relevant calculations.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Titration Curves Show More >

You should be familiar with titration curves and be able to read them to find the concentration at the equivalence point.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Buffer Region Show More >

You should be able to define the buffer region and identify it on a titration curve.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Point where pKa=pH or pKb=pOH Show More >

You should be able to identify the points on a titration curve where pKa=pH or where pKb=pOH.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Identify species present during titration Show More >

You should be able to identify the different species (ions and molecules) present in the solution at different points during a titration.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Calculate pH after addition of acid/base to solution (advanced) Show More >

You should be able to calculate the pH of a solution after a known amount of acid or base has been added and equilibrium has been reached.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Buffers - conceptual Show More >

You should have a conceptual understanding of what a buffer is and how it works.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES:

• Calculate pH of a buffer before and after the addition of a strong acid or base Show More >

You should be able to calculate the pH of a buffer and then recalculate the pH after a small amount of acid or base has been added and equilibrium has been reestablished. AP students: calculate pH of a buffer. IB and Advanced: calculate pH of a buffer before and after addition of a strong acid or base.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation Show More >

You should be able to use the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation to calculate the pH of a buffer.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Explain how to make a buffer of a certain pH Show More >

You should be able to explain how you would make a buffer with a given pH, including what conjugate acid-base pair you would use.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Salt Hydrolysis Show More >

You should be able to explain why many hydrated metal cations form acidic solutions, as well as why the acidity tends to increase as the size of the metal ion decreases and the charge increases.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

19. Electrochemistry Show More >

Electricity can be generated by redox reactions, and electricity can cause a reaction to occur. Electrochemistry is the study of the relationship between electricity and chemical reactions, including batteries and electroplating.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Redox: Oxidation at Anode, Reduction at Cathode Show More >

By knowing that oxidation occurs at the anode and reduction occurs that the cathode, you should be able to determine the cathode and anode in an electrochemical cell.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Electrolytic Cells, Electrolysis Show More >

You should be able to draw an electrolytic cell and write the reactions occurring at the anode and cathode.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Faraday's Law of Electrolysis Show More >

You should be able to use Faraday's law of electrolysis to calculate the number of electrons transferred during electrolysis, the mass of material deposited or removed from an electrode, the current, the time elapsed, and/or the charge of ionic species.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Galvanic / Voltaic Cells Show More >

You should be able to draw a galvanic cell and write the reactions occurring at the anode and cathode.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Calculate Electrical Potential of Galvanic Cell Show More >

You should be able to use a table of standard reduction potentials along with the half reactions for the cell to calculate the standard cell potential.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Use LeChatelier's Principle to predict differences in electrical potential and electron flow relative to ideal (standard conditions) Show More >

You should be able to use LeChatelier's Principle to predict differences in electrical potential and electron flow relative to those under standard conditions.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Nernst Equation Show More >

You should be able to use the Nernst equation to determine the cell EMF under non-standard conditions.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level

• Relationship of Gibbs Free Energy and standard cell potential Show More >

You should know the relationship between Gibbs' free energy and the standard cell potential and how to use it in calculations.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

20. Metals and Metallic Bonds Show More >

Metallic solids are composed entirely of metal atoms. The metal cations are held together by a sea of delocalized electrons.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Sea of Delocalized Electrons Show More >

You should understand the "sea of electrons" model of metallic bonding and understand how that helps explain some properties of metals.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Properties of Metals Show More >

You should know some physical properties common to many metals, such as conductivity, ductility, malleability, and low volatility. You should also be able justify some of the properties using the electron sea model.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Alloys Show More >

You should know the definition of an alloy and be able to give some examples.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Properties of Metallic Solids Show More >

You should be able to discuss the general properties of alloys and also explain how making an alloy allows us to intentionally adjust the properties from those of the original metal.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

21. Covalent-Network Solids Show More >

Covalent-network solids are composed of non-metal atoms connected in a network by covalent bonds. Diamond, graphite, and quartz are examples of covalent-network solids.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

22. Nuclear Chemistry Show More >

Unlike chemical reactions, nuclear reactions can convert an atom of on element to an atom of another element. Radiation and radioactive elements are used for treatment and diagnosis in medicine, for determining the age of historical artifacts, and to trace the movement of atoms in chemical reactions. Nuclear reactions are also used to generate electricity.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Radioactive Decay Products (alpha, beta, gamma) Show More >

You should be able to list the common radioactive decay products (alpha, beta, and gamma), and describe their masses and charges.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level

• How to block decay products and relative risks of exposure to each Show More >

You should be able to describe how to block each decay product and explain why that method works as opposed to others.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level

• Predicting missing decay products in a reaction Show More >

Given an incomplete decay equation, you should be able to predict the missing particle by balancing the atomic numbers, mass numbers, and charges.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level

• Stability of nucleus (proton/neutron ratio) Show More >

You should be able to discuss the relationship between the stability of the nucleus and the proton to neutron ratio. You should also be familiar with the proposed island of stability and the search of a stable heavy element.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level

• Energy changes in a nuclear reaction (conceptual and E=mc2) Show More >

You should be able to use your knowledge of Einstein's equation (E=mc^2) and the small changes in mass involved to explain why the energy released in nuclear reactions is so large. Given a change in mass, you should also be able to calculate the energy released by the reaction.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level

• Calculation energy changes per atom (advanced) Show More >

Advanced students should be able to calculate the energy change per nucleon.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level

• Half-life Calculations (determine half-life or amount remaining after given time) Show More >

You should be able to perform half-life calculations such as determining the half-life from two amounts and the time in between, or determining the amount of a sample remaining after a certain time, given the half-life.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Fusion and Fission Show More >

You should be able to compare and contrast fusion and fission and be able to provide examples of where they occur.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level

23. Introduction to Organic and Biochemistry Show More >

Organic chemistry is the study of carbon-based molecules, such as hydrocarbons, alcohols, polymers, and gasoline. Biochemistry involves the chemistry of biological systems, which include organic molecules such as carbohydrate, proteins, and DNA.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Naming Simple Organic Compounds Show More >

You should be able to name relatively simple organic compounds.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies
RELATED TOPICS:

EXAMPLES: SUB-SUBJECTS:

• Up to 10 carbons Show More >

You should be able to name chains of up to 10 carbon atoms.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Single, double, and triple bonds Show More >

You should be able to name organic compounds containing all single bonds, or containing single bonds with one double bond or one triple bond.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Functional groups Show More >

You should be able to identify common functional groups such as alcohols, aldehydes, organic acids, and amines, and use them in the compound name.

Basic - Included in  basic studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Polymers have repeating subunits Show More >

You should know the definition of a polymer and be able to identify the repeating subunit in simple polymers.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• Proteins composed of amino acids Show More >

You should know that proteins are composed of amino acids.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies

• IM forces Show More >

You should be able to explain how intermolecular forces affect the behaviors of organic and biomolecules, such as their melting and boiling point and their role in protein folding.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies IB - Included in International Baccalaureate studies

• Redox in biological systems for energy production Show More >

You should be able to explain the role of redox reactions in producing energy in biological systems.

Advanced - Included in advance studies at high-school level AP - Included in Advance Placement studies